Scareware and Ransomware - do you know the difference?

Scareware popup

Scammers have a wide range of tricks that they employ to try and part unsuspecting internet users from their hard-earned cash and/or personal details. 

Scareware and Ransomware are quite different things (one is certainly more serious than the other), but would you be able to spot the difference and, more importantly, protect yourself from both?